Inspiration : 36:40 It is not allowable for the sun to reach the moon, nor does the night overtake the day, but each, in an orbit, is swimming. Isn't it amazing that everything in this world is actually swimming, when we think about it. Each event or action is related to the previous one and flows from it to the next. If I have to move a pen from my left side to my right side, it has to actually flow from the left side to my right as my hand picks it up and then drop it. It cant vanish from the left side and appear instantly on the right side. There is always a path that is followed and can be traced. Isn't that amazing. I am reading a lot about how our mind understands and recognise environments and space that I realised the importance of 'swimming' in our life. Our mind forms maps of our environments and these maps are called cognitive maps. Cognitive maps are highly imprecise maps and are nothing like the google maps. But its automatic for us and we use it to understand where we are and move to another location. These cognitive maps form a representation or a snapshot of a view of the environment and each such representation connects to the next to form a map. Its always the flow > From Here to This to There Like 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5 Is Swimming... So what does all these lead to. More questions ofcourse. Is it that the world is designed so that everything is swimming or is it our mind that perceives everything to be swimming. We have no way of knowing what the world is without our perceptions about it. Our perceptions are just perceptions that cant be always accurate, like the illusions that we perceive to be true. Sun, moon , night and day are all swimming in orbits ( paths ). Revealed more than 1400 years ago. Glory ! What is Glory! I have been trying to comprehend the meaning of Glory for some time now. Glory is not a common word that we use in our day to day conversations. However, its a common word in all religious scriptures  bible, torah , quran. Its found in numerous forms in the Quran. Another word that closely resembles (lexically) Glory in quran is Yasbahoon (36:40) which means swimming or to glide. From the discussion that i had on Glory, I learned that it means that God is Most Perfect. We glorify that which is Most Perfect in all sense. Of course, God's creations  us and all that we see around us, are also perfect. But God is More perfect than that. In order to understand this, we discussed the example of an apple falling from an apple tree. When an apple falls to the earth, it follows the most perfect path to reach the earth. But we never glorify an apple fall. This is because, external influences  like the wind or a bird can cause the apple to deviate from the perfect path. God is Perfect in the sense that He is always Perfect and none can cause him to deviate from that state of Perfectness. Glory be to God. 17:44 The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [ Allah ] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever Forbearing and Forgiving. Allah knows Best. Here is a list of all words in the Quran that has the arabic alphabet 'seen' followed by 'ba' which is followed by 'ha' (س 12 ب 2 ح 6 ). These alphabets were chosen because Subahana has these alphabets and Yasbahoon has these alphabets. I am not clear how Yasbahoon is related to Subahana. Here is an attempt to understand them. Please note that, this is not an attempt to explore hidden meanings in the Quran. However , this is an attempt to understand the Quran and Allah. The following list may be used to study the meanings of Glory.
AIM : Study whether 'Correlation Coefficients' (Pearson's and Spearman's) can be used to find lexical similarity between ayats in the Holy Quran. Compare 'Correlation Coefficients' with Cosine similarity in finding in finding similar ayats from the Holy Quran INTRODUCTION : Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the study. All the three  Pearson's coefficient, Spearman's coefficient and cosine similarity shows least similarity when value is close to 0 and show strongest similarity when value is close to 1 or 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Correlation_and_dependence http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearson_productmoment_correlation_coefficient http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spearman's_rank_correlation_coefficient METHOD : For every two ayats/verses in the holy quran, compute the pearson coefficient, spearmans coefficient and cosine similarity. Compare them. ABBREVIATIONS USED : 1) pearson' product moment correlation coefficient  PEARSON_COEFF 2) spearman's rank correlation coefficient  SPEARMAN_COEFF 3) cosine similarity  COS RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS: The web application for finding out the PEARSON_COEFF and SPEARMAN_COEFF between any two ayats of the Quran is here : http://mobware4u.appspot.com/quran_correlation_coeff_analyzer For cosine similarity : http://mobware4u.appspot.com/quran_cosine_similarity_analyzer In most of the cases, the correlation coefficients gave similar results as cosine similarity. i.e when cosine similarity value was high the correlation coefficients were also high and vice versa. some examples :
But at times, the correlation coefficients showed a lesser similarity than the cosine similarity analysis. An example On examining the verses, it was found that the verses (112:4 and 51:9) were in fact very different verses. This shows that the correlation coefficients were better in finding the lexical similarity between verses than the cosine similarity. There were two cases in which the correlation coefficients showed a greater value than the cosine similarity. They are : The two cases ( 88:8 & 75:22, 82:3 & 81:6 ) had one word that was different. This showed that Spearman's coefficient was incorrect in this case as it gave a very high similarity between the two different ayats. Also, it as found that a Spearman's Coefficient of value greater than 0.9999999999999999 does not necessarily mean that the ayats were the same. The following example shows ayats which are not same but gives a spearman coefficient value of 1. For Pearson's coefficient, a value greater than or equal to 0.9999999999999999 always indicated the same verse. For cosine similarity, a value greater than or equal to 0.9999999999999998 always indicated the same verse. CONCLUSION : Correlation coefficients could also be used in the study of lexical similarity between ayats of the Holy Quran. Pearson's coefficient and Cosine Similarity were best suited to find the exact matching verse or repeated verses in the Quran. Otherwise, the correlation coefficients (both pearson's and spearman's) gave better results than cosine similarity. Four different methods to compare ayats of the holy quran for lexical similarity were studied. The methods used were :
The above methods were used to compare ayats of the Holy Quran. The total time taken to repeat the methods for the entire quran was recorded. Each method was run 3 times for the entire Quran. Java was the programming language used. Here are the results :
The results clearly shows that string comparison in JAVA is faster than the other methods. However it has the following drawback which are not present in other methods :
Here is a tool to study the repeated verses or ayats that occur in the Holy Quran. http://mobware4u.appspot.com/quran_repeated_verses Some interesting Facts
10 MOST Repeated Ayats
TOP 3 Surahs with the Most Repeated Ayats
